Updated July 14th 2008
Miniature Donkeys require access to pasture for grazing and exercise . The must always have access to shelter from the rain, snow , wind , hot sun and flies.Donkeys dont mind the cold as long as they have shelter , warm bedding and are fed properly.
Donkeys need good quality hay in the winter and access to a salt lick . Youngstock , Nursing and pregnant Jennies will benefit from a concentrate supplement.
Miniature Donkeys are Herd animals and to avoid undue stress it is essential that they not be kept singly but with another Miniature Donkey or other equine as a life long friend
Remember, Donkeys by nature are stoic and laid back and it is not always obvious that they are ill. If your Donkey is not eating contact you Vet immediately.
Scours/diahorrea can be fatal for foals if left untreated.
This page will be updated in more detail soon,
Always feel free to phone or email for specific information.
Below is information on the Care of Donkeys Courtesy of the NMDA in the United States, The MMDA in England and the Canadian Government
ADVICE FOR THE NEW MINIATURE DONKEY OWNER
Reprinted Courtesy of the NMDA
Are you considering Miniature Donkeys? Or have you just purchased your first pair? There are a number of things you need to know to be sure you and your new equine will get off to a good start.
The first thing you will need is adequate housing and a place for them to be turned out for exercise. The housing should provide protection from rain, snow or sun and be free of drafts. Heat is not necessary, but a tight building is important, especially for those who live in cold climates. A small barn or outbuilding will do nicely depending on the part of the country you live in. In cold climates you might want something more substantial. The flooring should be appropriate to drain or absorb urine and be easy to clean or "muck out". Stall mats or bedding (straw or sawdust) work well although straw is a better choice for the foaling stall. The Donkeys will need access to fresh, clean water year round (an automatic waterer or a tank heater in cold climates is a real time saver). You will also need a hayrack, mineral and plain salt blocks and a feed tub. Check the stall and paddock area carefully to make sure there are no sharp edges or places an animal can get caught or injured. Ideally you should have a stall or barn with access to a paddock or pasture which will allow your Donkeys to come and go if the weather turns bad and you are not available. This is the best situation for the Donkeys and the least labor intensive for you.
If you have purchased your Donkeys from an experienced, reputable breeder no doubt they have given you information to get you started. You have probably gathered that a Donkey, as a herd animal, needs a companion and the best companion is another Donkey. Even if you purchased your Miniature Donkey as a companion to a horse, what happens when the horse goes off to be ridden? Usually the horse doesn't want to leave his Donkey friend and the Donkey is very unhappy to have his companion go without him so a pair of Donkeys makes good sense. A single Miniature Donkey will be lonely without a companion often braying and pacing when alone. Sheep and/or goats are not appropriate companions for a single Donkey since one—on—one Donkey/small livestock play could turn rough. The equation may change if you have two Miniature Donkeys coexisting with smaller livestock. Gradual introductions will let everyone get to know one another and ease transition times.
You will also need to properly introduce dogs as well as other family pets when you bring your new Donkeys home. Donkeys tend to have a natural suspicion of dogs (as predators), but with time will get to know family members. Be sure your dogs are not chasing after the Donkeys.
A Miniature Donkey will not make an appropriate "guard donkey". It is generally believed that since donkeys are not particularly fond of dogs, that they are naturally good guard animals for sheep & goat herds. The truth is that a Miniature Donkey is no match for more than one dog at a time and sadly there have been too many reports of Miniature Donkeys being mauled and killed by neighborhood dogs. Standard size donkeys may be able to fill the role as a guardian donkey, but not Miniature Donkeys. Therefore your fencings should be safe for the donkeys, which means keeping predators out — either woven wire (field fencing) or high tensile fencing with "hot" wires as a deterrent.
Beware of foals for sale that are too young for weaning as this can effect how well adjusted they will be as adults. The little ones need to stay with their moms for approximately five to six months, but no younger than four months. You might want to ask the person you're buying from if they would keep the foal & jennet together if the foal is too young for a little longer. Even though you are eager to get your new pet home it is in the donkey's best interest and yours. Young foals will learn many valuable lessons by remaining with adult Donkeys until weaning.
Every intact Miniature Donkey jack that isn't being used for breeding should be gelded (see the Gelding Incentive Program for more information). You and your family will be happier with him as a wonderful, loving pet and his life will be much less complicated without having to deal with hormones. Many ungelded jacks face an uncertain future of being passed from home to home or ending up in an auction due to their instinctive, unbridled passions at times. Please consider gelding your jacks this is extremely important. However, before making an appointment with your veterinarian to do this surgery, ask NMDA to send you detailed information for your vet on how to geld a Miniature Donkey — the procedure should be done a bit differently than a horse to prevent excessive bleeding.
What else do you need for your Donkey now that you have housing, a turnout and a companion? A Donkey, like a horse, will need a basic series of vaccinations and yearly boosters. Your local equine veterinarian can tell you what vaccines are appropriate in your area. Tetanus, Eastern/Western Sleeping Sickness, Rhinopneumonitis, Influenza, Rabies and West Nile are among vaccines that are often recommended. Your Donkey will need regular parasite control with a worming paste given every four to eight weeks, depending on the age of the animal. Again, check with your veterinarian to set up a schedule that applies to your particular part of the country. Hooves will need to be trimmed approximately every two to three months. Be sure your farrier (a person trained to trim hooves) is familiar with trimming a Donkey because Donkey hooves are trimmed at a more upright angle than a horse.
Nutrition is another subject where there are many differences of opinion and feeding practices in different parts of the country. Miniature Donkeys need good quality, dust—free hay. A timothy grass mix is very popular in the northeast, for instance. Mold in feed has been known to cause health problems and birth defects so good quality feed is essential, i.e. good grass hay should have a nice green color and a sweet smell (something like tea). Pregnant or nursing jennets and foals usually need a horse grain in addition to hay — in general a 10% to 12% protein content is all that is necessary and only a small amount (1 cup a.m. & p.m.). Donkeys are easy keepers and can get fat very easily so be very careful you do not overfeed your Donkey. Grazing on rich pasture day in and day out may be too much of a good thing too. Learn how to monitor your Donkey's body condition to be sure they are a healthy weight. Some areas of the country are deficient in selenium so many breeders supplement with a little selenium and Vitamin E. Consult with your veterinarian concerning supplements.
A few safety tips to remember:
- Make arrangements to have a veterinarian you can call on whenever needed — ask if they can provide emergency care. Invite them over soon after you bring your Miniature Donkeys home . . . this way the vet will see how your Donkeys look and act when they are feeling well and the visit will also allow the vet to learn how to get to your farm quickly if needed. There really is nothing like a good preliminary visit with your veterinarian — whether on your farm or in his office — to put your mind at ease about the healthy future of your Miniature Donkeys.
- Never leave a halter on your Donkeys due to the danger of hanging.
- Check your pasture for any toxic plants (your Cooperative Extension Service is a great source for identifying these troublemakers).
- Start working with your Donkeys on basic halter training.
- Learn how to take your Donkey's temperature.
- Be aware of any changes in your animal's behavior, eating, drinking or manure.
There are many good references that can help you learn more about your Donkey. The American Donkey and Mule Society (ADMS) have some wonderful resources in their Book Service at www.lovelongears.com.
It's true there are responsibilities in caring for Miniature Donkeys, but you will find them to be wonderful companions and great family members. May you have many years in the delightful company of these magical critters.
Reprinted Courtesy of The MMDA
UKDonkeys are desert animals and thus with our wet temperate climate and lush pastures are in a somewhat alien environment. This single factor determines the basis of their care and particularly feeding and how it significantly differs from horses and ponies.
Donkeys are herd animals and a single Miniature Mediterranean Donkey is a very lonely donkey and is unlikely to thrive. They should always have at least one companion. Goats, sheep and ponies are not suitable as companions.
Two miniature donkeys will require a minimum 1 acre of land.
Poor quality or wetness in winter may indicate the need for a greater area. This should be subdivided into sections to ensure against overgrazing and prevent over eating.
Droppings should be cleared daily from the pasture.
Miniature donkeys are healthy animals but do require shelter from bad weather. Unlike native ponies, donkeys are not waterproof and a 3 sided field shelter, with entrance facing away from prevailing winds, is the minimum requirement and will also provide shade in Summer.Fresh water must be provided daily. Dirty/stale water will not be accepted, even leading to dehydration.
In freezing conditions warm water is highly recommended as donkeys will not drink icy cold water. Most donkeys normally need to drink more water in winter than in Summer as they are consuming more dried food.
We recommend miniatures are stabled at night, especially in winter. Additionally for security purposes a stable with security lights is the safest place for such a friendly animals all year round after dark.
The same annual vaccinations as for other equines are recommended with protection against Tetanus being the essential minimum.
A full conventional equine de-worming programme is necessary throughout the year.
Miniature donkeys will need regular hoof care and feet should be trimmed every 8-10 weeks & teeth should be checked regularly. Canadian Government Information on Donkeys.
Ass is the correct name for members of Equus asinus, just as horse is the correct name for Equus caballus. However, the ass is more commonly called a donkey in North America. The name donkey comes from the old English word dunkey meaning an animal that is greyish-brown in color. Burro, the Spanish word for ass, usually refers to the feral donkeys that roam wild in various parts of North and South America.
According to Anthony Dent "there is no breed of ass that can be regarded as a specific and original American development. . . " For the most part it would appear that donkeys were brought to South America and Mexico by the Spanish Conquistadores in the 16 th century and have since slowly moved northward. The one exception may be American Mammoth jackstock, which was developed in the 18 th century from large imported European asses of Catalonian, Maltese and Poitou types.
A male donkey is called a jack. A female donkey is a jennet (sometimes written as jenny, but both pronounced the same). Castrated male donkeys are donkey geldings. Young donkeys are called jack foals or jennet foals.
The equine species can interbreed and will produce hybrid offspring that are usually infertile. The most common hybrids are the mule and hinny which are produced by the following combinations:
| Sire|| X|| Dam|| = || Foal|
| Stallion (Horse)|| X|| Jennet (Donkey)|| = || Hinny|
| Jack (Donkey)|| X|| Mare (Horse)|| = || Mule|
In Canada donkeys can be registered with The Canadian Donkey and Mule Association, an organization founded in 1976 and incorporated in 1988 under the Animal Pedigree Act (1988).
Because there are no specific North American donkey breeds, the Canadian Donkey and Mule Association recognizes the height classification given to donkeys in the United States. The donkey sizes recognized in Canada for registration purposes are:
Conformation of miniature, small and large standard donkeys
- Miniature: under 36 inches high at the withers when mature
- Small Standard: from 36.01 to 48 inches
- Large Standard: over 48 inches and under 54 inches for jennets; over 48 inches and under 56 inches for jacks and geldings
- Mammoth: 54 inches or over for jennets; 56 inches or over for jacks and geldings.
Before breeding quality donkeys (jacks and jennets) are accepted into the stud book of the Canadian Donkey and Mule Association, they must be inspected once they reach four years of age.
Regardless of whether a donkey is selected for breeding, show or work purposes, a quality animal should have proper proportions and conformation. For centuries, donkeys were and still are work animals in many parts of the world. The conformation of donkeys therefore must be appropriate to, that of working animals.
Short rather than too long, but in proportion with the rest of the animal. Straight or slightly dished profile. Eyes large, of mild expression, set low, wide apart and clear. Nostrils well shaped and open. Teeth in good condition with no undershot or overshot jaws. Jaws generous, round and open. Head deep through the jaws, tapering to a small muzzle. Ears long, clean cut, set upright, carried firmly and alertly pointed. An appearance of strength and masculinity in jacks and femininity in jennets.
Neck well proportioned to the rest of the animal, joined to head and shoulder correctly and smoothly. Crest of the neck should be fairly straight, not ewe-necked, nor fallen to the side or excessively fat. Neck firm, well fleshed and strong. Mane usually short and upright, but may fall to the side as with the horse mane.
Withers practically nonexistent, but if noticeable so much the better. Shoulder slightly sloping, although more upright than the horse. The ribs should be well sprung and the girth deep. Chest relatively wide, not narrow. Back short and level, or slightly dipped in the case of older animals or in foal jennets. A very long, out of proportion back is undesirable. Loin strong, broad and firmly coupled. Quarters long, wide, and as flat as possible. Should be well fleshed with plenty of length between point of hip and point of buttock. When viewed from the rear the thicker all parts of the quarters and thighs are the better. Top of croup rounded, not extremely sloping. Tail well set, not low, covered with short hair and completed by a tuft of long hair.
Limbs must be straight and true, with adequate bone in proportion to the type of animal. Knees flat and wide, cannon bones short. Hocks set low, strong, clean and correct shape. Characteristics desirable in the limbs of the horse are also desirable in the donkey, except pasterns of the donkey are more upright.
Hooves should be even, of good shape and well trimmed. They should be hard, clean, smooth, elastic and tough. The size must be adequate to the donkey, but true to the typical donkey hoof which is narrow. No tendency to low heels. Front foot oval, hind foot more elongated and frog small but well developed.
To be level and true, willing and active
Donkeys come in a wide variety of colors; dun-grey is the most common. Grey donkeys often have dorsal and shoulder stripes that are black, brown or dark grey, usually the same color as the mane. These markings are more common in the smaller donkeys and are thought to indicate a common ancestry with Nubian Wild Ass (Africa). True Mammoths rarely have dorsal and shoulder stripes. Zebra stripes or horizontal stripes on the legs may indicate common ancestry with the Somali Wild Ass (Africa).
Black and brown are the next most common colors. The brown color can vary from pale oatmeal to deep chocolate. More rare are the red or blue roan donkeys which have white hairs interspersed with chestnut (red roan) or black hair (blue roan). Equally rare are the broken colored or spotted donkeys that combine white patches with black, brown, roan or grey patches.
Standard donkey markings are generally a white nose, eye rings and a white underbelly. Completely black donkeys, or grey donkeys with unusual black noses are seen occasionally.
Differences Between Donkeys and Horses
Some notable differences between donkeys and horses or ponies are listed below:
Ears: The long ears of the donkey, which are well supplied with blood vessels, are a desert adaptation for cooling the body.
Eyes: The larger eyes of the donkey provide a wider field of vision than those of the horse.
Tail: The unusual tail resembles that of a cow because it is covered with short body hair except for the tuft on the end.
Chestnuts: Ergots or chestnuts are practically nonexistent on the hind legs of donkeys.
Vertebral column: The donkey, like the Arabian horse, lacks the fifth lumbar vertebra in the spinal column normally found in other equine skeletons.
Hoof: Donkeys have hooves that are more upright, smaller, tougher and more elastic than those of horses. Consequently donkey hooves rarely need to be shod.
Coat:: Donkeys have coats that tends to be longer and coarser than that of the horse, although texture can vary among North American donkeys. It is important to note that donkeys do not have the protective undercoat that horses do; therefore, they are more susceptible to climatic conditions such as rain, wet snow and wind. Insulation from heat or cold is largely created by air pockets between the longer hairs.
Voice: The distinctive bray.
Donkeys have a life span of 30 to 50 years, which is greater than that of the horse.
Larger brain capacity is evidenced by the fact that donkeys require bridles with a larger browband than that needed for a comparable size of horse or pony. Donkeys are reported to have developed an intelligence superior to that of the horses, but its instincts give rise of different behavior, in certain circumstances, which many misconstrue as stubbornness. For example, it is not the nature of the donkey to run in panic when frightened as the horse instinctively does. Under the same conditions donkeys are more likely to stop, stand still and study the situation carefully to determine the best course of action.
The donkey is reportedly more prepotent but less fertile than the horse. Whereas the conception rate of the horse is reported at approximately 60 to 65 per cent, the conception rate of the donkey is considered to be lower than that of the horse. Donkeys have an average gestation period of 12 months compared to 11 months in horses. Gestation in the donkey can vary from I 1 to 14 months. Production of twins, though rare, is more frequent among donkeys than horses.
Donkeys browse as well as graze. Donkeys will eat coarse herbage, marsh grass, young thistles and shrubs in his pasture, feeds that most horses will not eat.
As desert animals donkeys do best in a temperate climate, although they will adapt to cold climates if provided with proper shelter and extra feed. They do not mind the cold. Donkeys dislike rain, and are susceptible to pneumonia and bronchitis when chilled. In Canada during late spring, summer and early fall an open front shed will do for shelter if it is well bedded with dry straw. In winter, depending on the region of Canada, donkeys may be shut in a barn, but allowed to run out on good days, or they may be loosed housed in a comfortable shelter facing away from the prevailing wind. Some donkeys like snow, but others suffer from the cold. Guard against chilling by the wind.
Wet snow can melt down into a donkey's coat, soaking the hair and causing the animal to chill. Snow should be scraped off a donkey when it is put inside the barn. During a rain, the horse will have water pouring off its back, but the donkey's coat will become sodden with the rain as it soaks down to the skin. Donkeys therefore needs adequate shelter during the cold rains of spring and fall.
Donkeys can graze coarser pasture than a horse. Lush pasture is not recommended because donkeys have low energy requirements and are prone to obesity and certain metabolic disorders such as laminitis (founder) and hyperlipaemia if allowed free choice high quality pasture.
Allow each donkey from one-half to one acre of pasture per month. This will vary with the quality and amount of growth in the area, and the size of the donkey. Obviously Mammoths will need larger areas than Miniatures or Small Standards. If possible divide pastures and alternate from one pasture to another. When a pasture is at rest the long grass and weeds can be trimmed down well before the animals are to be returned to it. Harrowing the pasture will help to spread the manure and reduce parasite problems.
Donkeys will make a place where they can take dust/sand baths during warm weather.
Pasture fencing can be page wire, plain or barbed wire (beware of cuts from the latter), electric or a combination of both. Donkeys quickly learn to be very respectful of electric fence.
From mid-May to early September, pasture will provide enough to meet the nutrient requirements of donkeys unless drought conditions exist. Make the change from dry food to grass slowly in the spring, to avoid health problems such as grass founder. Allow donkeys on pasture for thirty minutes per day at first then gradually increase the length of time each day, donkeys should be turned out after they have been fed dry feed. After a week, the donkey can stay on pasture all the time.
Feed and Water
Provide fortified trace mineralized salt in block or loose form in the pasture or by the shelter. Check with the district agriculturalist to learn which minerals are deficient in the feeds of the region (e.g. selenium, copper, zinc, etc). These must be added to diets for donkeys, usually in the salt or mineral mix.
Fresh water is essential. Donkeys are very particular about water being fresh and clean. They will drink from I 0 to, 25 litres per day.
High quality hay should be fed in winter or when pastures are depleted in the fall. Legume hay (rich in alfalfa or clover) is not recommended as the only hay for donkeys because of its high protein levels. Timothy, meadow grass, brome grass or mixed legume-grass hays are suitable. Hay composed of 50 per cent timothy and 50 per cent alfalfa is suitable for donkeys that, are growing, pregnant, nursing and during the coldest months of winter.
When available, silage may be fed in small quantities with the balance of the feed to be made up of hay. Beware of mildew (grey dust) or mold on hay - They are poisonous!
Concentrate feeds, such as grain, are seldom needed by donkeys. However, growing youngsters and pregnant or nursing jennets may receive grain rations depending on their body condition. Donkeys need grain if they are use work (driving, packing, predator control in sheep, etc.).
Prepared horse feeds provide supplemental energy, protein, minerals and vitamins required by donkeys. Supplements formulated for cattle, pigs or poultry should not be used, because they may contain additives that are toxic (e.g. Rumensin).
The average Small Standard donkey (approximately 44 inches tall and weighing 400-500 lb) that does little or very light work in winter, requires only two handfuls of whole oats per day and some hay. Watch donkeys closely to determine whether they need more or less feed. Youngsters under the age of two and older donkeys that are more than 20-years-old have been found to do well on rolled oats or a 50 per cent rolled oat and 50 per cent rolled barley mix. Adult donkeys over the age of two years do well on good quality, clean whole oats.
An obese donkey should be fed only hay (2-4 flakes per day). A thick roll of fat along the crest of the neck indicates obesity in donkeys. This roll of fat is extremely hard to reduce once it has formed. Eventually the excess weight of the neck roll will cause it to fall over to one side of the neck, creating an unsightly malformation. Avoid placing the obese donkey on a starvation diet in the hope of rapidly removing excess weight. The loss of more than 2 kg (4.4 lb) per month can precipitate metabolic disorders such as hyperlipaemia according to The Professional Handbook of the Donkey.
Adult donkeys in good condition will eat the same amount of hay, plus the ration of concentrates mentioned above. Naturally the amounts fed will vary with the size and condition of the donkeys. Mammoths or miniatures need correspondingly more or less feed.
A rough guideline is to feed a total weight (hay plus grain ration) of 1 kg of feed per 50 kg of body weight (two pounds of feed per hundred pounds of body weight).
A 450 lb donkey
The more hard work required, the greater the amount of grain usually given providing the donkey does not become too energetic and hard to handle. For example:
- at rest - approximately 4 kg (9 lb) total feed (hay plus grain) daily.
- at work-approximately 5kg(11.25 lb) total feed daily
A 450 lb donkey
A 950 lb Mammoth donkey
- at rest - 0 to 1 lb grain plus 7-8 lb hay daily.
- at work - 1 to 2 lb grain plus 9-10 lb hay daily.
The donkey is more of a browser in his eating habits. Therefore it is important to supply the donkey with free choice good quality barley or oat straw, along with his ration of hay and grain. Research at The Donkey Sanctuary in England has shown that straw in the ration may help the donkey produce natural biotin to improve skin and hoof condition. However, straw is a low quality feed and must not be used as a substitute for hay in the diets of donkeys.
- at rest - 0-2 lb grain plus 15-18 lb hay daily.
- at work - 4-5 lb grain plus 16-18 lb hay daily.
Any animal that is frequently fed tidbits will spend its life looking for them and will soon learn, just as a horse or pony, to nip the hand with no food in it. Feed any treats in a tub on the ground while petting and talking to the donkey.
Grooming and Health Grooming
Donkeys enjoy being groomed. Brush them with a fairly stiff brush in the direction the hair grows. Be gentle with the ears, do not twist or hold them tightly. In spring, a shedding blade is useful for loosening the thick winter coat. Do not be too hasty to help shed the winter coat. Donkeys take up to two months longer to shed their hair coat than horses and will easily catch a chill if the coat is shed too early in the spring. Use caution when grooming in winter. Grooming destroys the natural air pockets in the coat that provide insulation, so groom only on warm days. Clipping is not recommended unless adequate protection from inclement weather is provided.
In summer, grooming is almost hopeless because donkeys take dust baths. This natural method of bathing is used by animals that do not like water.
Watch for the donkey that rubs its coat, especially at the tail head - it may have lice. If evidence of lice is seen, check with a veterinarian for the best preparation to remove the lice.
Clean out hooves regularly. Remember donkey hooves are very elastic and do not wear down like those of other equines. If left untrimmed they grow to astounding proportions and such neglect can cause an animal to be permanently crippled. Ideally hooves should be trimmed every four to eight weeks depending on age and speed of growth. The hooves of foals generally grow faster than those of adult donkeys. Keep feet short and neat.
Deworm donkeys three to six times per year, using any of the equine paste wormers currently on the market. If the presence of parasites is suspected, a veterinarian should do a fecal test to determine exactly what type of worms are present and how best to treat for them. Rotation of deworming products is recommended. Unless internal parasites are removed by regular deworming, donkeys will suffer internal tissue damage from migrating parasites, which may considerably shorten their life span.
Donkeys should be given an annual injection of a four-way equine vaccine every spring. The injection provides immunity against eastern and western equine encephalitis, equine influenza and tetanus, which are all potentially fatal equine diseases. Check with a veterinarian about starting a vaccination program.
Goals of the Breeder
Breeders must establish what the goals of their breeding program are before purchasing any stock. Breeders can select stock of known ancestry with the assistance of The Canadian Donkey and Mule Association (1988), which operates the only registry for Canadian donkeys and mules, selection from.
Examples of possible goals for the breeder:
Keep in mind that every breeder must work towards proper conformation. Do not be tempted to chose breeding stock because it has a unique color or size if defects such as crooked legs, angular rumps, ewe necks or jaw deformities are present!
- The production of heavy-boned draft type Mammoth jackstock.
- The production of red roan Mammoth jackstock to provide red roan jacks for the production of sorrel draft mules from Belgian mares.
- The production of refined, saddle type Mammoth jackstock for riding, harness work or to yield jacks for saddle mule breeding.
- The production of spotted Small or Large Standard donkeys for show or fine harness work.
- The production of sturdy Large Standard donkeys for packing or riding.
- The production of well conformed Miniature donkeys, or colourful spotted Miniatures.
The Choice of Jack and Jennet
Donkeys can suffer from many conformation defects ( See Conformation Defects). These are largely due to generations of indiscriminate breeding which have promoted and accentuated such conformation defects as crooked legs, narrow chests and jaw defects. The novice breeder should visit as many donkey breeders and donkey shows as possible to study and understand donkeys as work animals before investing in breeding stock.
The purpose of registration is to record individual animals so that their type and ancestry are known. Breeders who keep good records are likely to be helpful in getting the novice breeder established. Such records, as well as the opportunity to view both parents of a sale animal, are a distinct advantage when purchasing stock.
Methods of Breeding
The simplest way to bred donkeys is to turn a jack out with a group of jennets and allow them to breed naturally. However, there are some possible disadvantages:
- a jack that is not in excellent condition may not successfully breed all the jennets.
- risk of injury to the jack by aggressive jennets, or vice versa.
- risk of injury to foals in the herd. The jack may try to kill any jack foal born.
- risk of infection being spread in an uncontrolled situation.
- difficulty in determining dates of breeding and foaling dates unless the donkeys are closely observed.
A jennet can be placed in a breeding chute or stall and bred with a jack that is controlled by a handler. Advantages are:
Disadvantages of this method are the requirement of extra care, handling, and facilities for regular teasing, and breeding of the jennets. Some jacks are slow breeders, so the process can be time consuming.
- minimal risk of injury to jack and jennet. The foal can be placed close by so the jennet is not worried about her offspring.
- the jack's energy can be conserved and is not wasted chasing jennets.
- risk of disease is reduced as both jack and jennet can be washed thoroughly before breeding.
- exact dates for breeding can be recorded and dates for foaling can be predicted.
Semen collected from a jack can be used to artificially inseminate one or more jennets. The main advantages of this technique are the lowered risk of infection, and the possibility breeding more jennets. The disadvantages of AI for many small breeders is the costs involved for a trained technician, or the courses and purchase of equipment to establish them in equine AI.
Jacks can be precocious at an early age, and young jennets often show their first heat cycles early in the yearling year. However, it is unwise to breed donkeys that are less than three-years-old because they mature slowly. An immature jennet that becomes pregnant may suffer permanent damage to the skeletal and muscular system and may produce foals with congenital malformations. Physically immature jennets may also lack the maturity to be good mothers.
Signs of Estrus
Jennets do not normally show estrus throughout the winter months, but often start to show signs of estrus in March, and then continue to cycle normally every 21 to 28 days until conception occurs, or towards year end in November or December. When in heat the jennet will lay her ears back, and repeatedly open and close the mouth in a mouthing reflex, sometimes drooling. The jennet will squat to urinate more frequently and bray more often than normal.
Gestation and Care of Jennet During Gestation
Jennet will carry a foal an average of 12 months before giving birth. however, the length of gestation ranges from 11 to almost 14 months. Considering the length of gestation it is wise to consider the time of year that the jennet will foal, and condine the breeding season from May 1 to August 1 in cold climates. Either side of these dates will require a suitable barn and good foaling facilities to ensure the survival of the foal and well being of the jennet.
Jennets should maintain a quiet lifestyle during pregnancy with regular exercise either at liberty, or riding and driving if they are used to such work up until the last quarter of pregnancy. Hard or fast work should be avoided during the last quarter of pregnancy. Hard or fast work should be avoided during the last quarter of pregnancy.
Regular hoof care is important. Regular deworming is necessary to maintain jennets in good condition for foaling. Check with a veterinarian before giving any deworming medication in the last quarter (3 months) of gestation. Some products are safe during this time period and others are not.
Unless jennets are thin, the feeding program can remain unchanged until the last quarter(3 months) of gestation. Some products are safe during this time period and others are not.
Unless jennets are thin, the feeding program can remain unchanged until the last quarter (3 months) of gestation when the fetus grows the most. Excessive feed early in pregnancy will create obesity and potential foaling problems. Increased feed should be maintained from the final quarter of pregnancy throughout the first three months after birth. Maximum milk production occurs in the three months after foaling.
Jennets are rarely consistent in showing the same signs of impending birth from one pregnancy to the next. However, jennets will generally show some or all of the following signs:
- The udder gradually enlarges about 30 days before birth of the foal. As the birth date approaches the udder becomes enlarged and remains enlarged.
- The teats enlarge to the very tip several days before birth.
- A waxy secretion that forms a cap over the end of each teat may form up to 48 hours before birth. Some jennets actually drip milk in the last 24 to 48 hours. Do not milk the jennet at this stage.
- Softening of the pelvic ligaments creates a groove along either side of the spinal column in the loin area toward the tail head. This sign may go unnoticed in a first foaler or a jennet with a winter coat.
- The vulva becomes very soft and loose during the last week or two of pregnancy, and gradually enlongates as birth approaches. Birth is usually in matter of hours when the lips of the vulva are swollen out to be flush with hindquarters.
- A jennet may be unfriendly towards other animals and prefer to stand by itself.
- The jennet will show restlessness as the foal turns and prepares to move into the birth passage. At this stage she may look thinner, walk the stall and get up and down a number of times. Sometimes birth occurs immediately after the foal has turned, or sometimes the jennet will wait for another day or so.
- Just before birth, the jennet's tail will be carried out away from the body, lifted and usually kinked to one side. She may frequently pass small amounts of soft manure or urinate.
Jennets not only show variation in the signs before foaling, they can foal at any time of the day or night, so close observation is important.
Jennets will be restless, walk the box stall, lay down and get up repeatedly. When the cervix is fully dilated, the water bag protrudes into the vagina and ruptures releasing amniotic fluid which lubricates the passageway for the foal.
The jennet will then start to strain hard and a pair of tiny forefeet will soon appear. As more of the front legs emerge the nose of the foal will be seen resting on the front legs. This is the normal birth position. Do not hurry the jennet or pull on the foal's feet. Unless there is a problem in the presentation of the foal, the jennet will handle the birth unaided in 15 to 30 minutes.
If the jennet has been straining hard for 20 minutes and no foal appears, or the front feet appear but no nose, or only one foot shows, call a veterinarian. These signs of malpresentation require expert assistance if both the jennet and foal are to come through the process of birth alive and well.
As the neck appears, the head may start to move and break the membrane that encloses the foal. If it does not, tear the membrane open and wipe the foal's nostrils clear of mucus to help it breathe.
Do not cut the navel cord. The jennet will break the cord when she gets up. She will then lick her foal dry. This licking action is important, especially with first foaling jennets, because it stimulates the mothering instinct of the jennet and prevents chilling of the newborn. The jennet will usually expel the afterbirth (placenta) within half an hour. If the afterbirth has not been expelled within 6 to 8 hours call for veterinary assistance. A retained placenta can cause infection or laminitis (founder).
Care of Newborn Donkey Foals
Once the umbilical cord has broken, dip the foal's navel stump in a five per cent iodine solution to prevent umbilical infection. The jennet and foal should be watched to make sure the foal stands and nurses. It is vital to the foal's health that it drink the colostrum, or first milk, which is rich in antibodies. If the foal is the jennet's first offspring, she may not want to nurse and it may be necessary to hold or tie the jennet while helping the foal to nurse for the first time.
Watch for the foal to pass the meconium or first manure. These hard pellets are often passed as the foal struggles to stand before nursing. If a foal does not pass the meconium during the first 12 to 24 hours and shows signs of raising its train and straining without results, then a veterinarian should be called to administer an enema or mineral oil to stimulate the passage of the meconium.
Donkey foals have a thick, fluffy coat which fives the appearance of warmth and hardiness compared to horse foals., but such is not the case. donkey foals are not very hardy and require suitable shelter especially for the first two weeks of life. Foals that are soaked by rail easily become chilled and may contract bronchitis or pneumonia, which can be fatal. If this occurs bring the wet foal into the barn, rub it down will with towels and leave the foal inside until it is thoroughly dry.
Between the ages of two weeks to a months foals start nibbling at the jennet's feed. At the time a foal can be fed a commercial foal ration separately in a small pen constructed with an opening just large enough for foals to enter. Foals will learn to use the creep feeder within tow to four weeks.
Diarrhea may be seen in foals at age of nine to ten days when the jennet starts her "foal hea". The condition usually disappears within a few days, and the foal is unaffected. If the condition persists or the foal is obviously neither feeling well or nursing normally then a veterinarian should be called.
Donkey foals can be weaned at four to six months of age. Weaning at three months or earlier is not recommended. Foals that are weaned early will require extra care and attention.
Jennets return to heat nine to ten days after foaling, however breeding is not recommended during the first heat. The rate of conception at this time is low, and the reproductive tract may not have returned to normal. Jennets are usually far more concerned about their young foals at this time and are more likely to be upset by the presence of the jack. On the second or third heat after foaling, jennets are more relaxed and receptive to the jack, foals can be kept in a pen or box stall close by the breeding area with few problems, and conception is more likely to occur.
The time lapse involved in rebreeding, combined with the length of a jennet's gestation, means that breeders will likely obtain less than of one foal per year. These factors make it more logical to plan for three foals in a four year period.
Source: Agdex467/20-1. November 1990.
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